Julyherb Factory Supply High Quality N-acetylneuraminic Acid
N-acetylneuraminic acid, also known as sialic acid, is a naturally occurring carbohydrate molecule that is found in various biological systems. It plays crucial roles in cellular functions and has several applications in different fields.
Sialic acid is a nine-carbon sugar acid and a derivative of neuraminic acid. It is typically found at the outermost ends of glycans (oligosaccharide chains) that are attached to proteins or lipids on cell surfaces. These glycans, also known as sialylated glycans, are involved in important cellular processes such as cell-cell recognition, signaling, and immune responses.
What Are the Functions of N-acetylneuraminic Acid?
- Cellular Recognition: Sialic acid-containing glycans act as recognition markers on cell surfaces. They are involved in various processes such as cell adhesion, immune cell recognition, and differentiation.
- Immune Response: Sialic acid plays a crucial role in modulating the immune response. It can act as a receptor for pathogens, helping to initiate an immune response against invading microorganisms. Additionally, sialic acid modifications on antibodies contribute to their functionality in immune defense.
- Cellular Signaling: Sialic acid can participate in cell signaling pathways and regulate important cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.
- Protection and Lubrication: Sialic acid helps protect cells from harmful substances by acting as a physical barrier. It also contributes to the lubrication of mucosal surfaces, such as those in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.
What Are the Applications of N-acetylneuraminic Acid?
- Pharmaceutical Industry: Sialic acid-based compounds have pharmaceutical potential. For example, sialic acid derivatives have been explored for their antiviral properties and as potential inhibitors of viral infections. Additionally, sialidase inhibitors, which prevent the removal of sialic acid residues from glycans, are being investigated for their potential therapeutic uses.
- Glycobiology Research: Sialic acid and sialylated glycans are extensively studied in the field of glycobiology. Their analysis can provide insights into disease mechanisms, cell functions, and biomarker discovery.
- Diagnostic Tools: Sialic acid levels, alterations, and modifications are used as biomarkers in various diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and genetic disorders. Detection and analysis of sialic acid can provide valuable diagnostic information.
- Food and Nutrition Industry: Sialic acid is found in certain food sources, such as milk and eggs. It is sometimes added to infant formulas as a nutritional supplement for infants who are not breastfed.